Today, people are wearing down jackets and snow boots t […]
Today, people are wearing down jackets and snow boots to keep out the cold. 3000 years ago, what did the ancients in Xinjiang wear to resist the cold? Recently, the Xinjiang Morning Post reporter learned that from the archaeological excavations in various parts of Xinjiang, the material life of the ancients in Xinjiang was extremely scarce, more than 3,000 years ago, but their means of protecting the cold Not far behind, they wear feather hats, fur coats and trousers boots, even warmer and more practical than today's down jackets and snow boots.
Fur coats can withstand more than 30 degrees of severe cold
Many scholars believe that human clothing may originate in the northern region at the earliest. Because the north is very cold in winter, people in the cold weather may start sewing clothes with animal fur very early.
After they killed the beast, they took it to the cave, "eat its meat and use its skin", cut the hide with a stone knife, then brushed the blood on the skin, and beat it with a flat stone or wood. After making it into a soft fur, it is made by sewing with a leather band or a fine skin bark to make a fur coat.
Archaeological data show that more than 3,000 years ago, ancient Xinjiang residents had mastered the skills of sewing such fur coats.
In 1979, archaeologists found the "Lou Lan Beauty" in the tomb of uniform fabric the Tieban River in the lower reaches of the Peacock River on the north bank of Lop Nur. The lower body was wrapped in a sheepskin, and the rough "soul" leather boots were stitched on the feet. It is reported that These fur clothes are about 3,800 years old, and they are the earliest fur clothes in the country.
In 1986, a fur coat with relatively good preservation was unearthed from the Tomb of the Five Fortress in Hami. This fur coat is more than 3,000 years old. The light board is facing outwards. The hair is in the fur, and the raw material is sheep skin. The outer hair is 7.5 to 10.5 cm long. Leather garments are sewn with animal skins or meridians. The style is open, narrow sleeves and long lapels. The left cuff of the leather garment was also stitched with fur gloves and the gloves were facing outwards.
According to the relevant experts of the Xinjiang Museum, the leather processing level of the Wubao Tomb is obviously higher than that of the fur clothing of “Lou Lan Beauty”. Until today, it is still soft to the touch.
Xinjiang archaeologists also found several fur coats, boots, leggings, and leather caps 2,500 years ago in the Subei cemetery and the Yanghai tombs in Shanshan County. Archaeologists speculated that according to the actual leather clothing, 2,500 years ago, the aunts in the Turpan area were popular in winter wearing fur coats and trousers. The warmth and style of these clothes are not inferior to today's down jackets and snow boots.
According to relevant experts, before the silk clothing was used, the history of the ancients using the hides to protect the cold has been hundreds of thousands of years. Wearing suede, it is still very common until the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period.
The feathers of the feather hat are comparable to today’s
Before the wool, the felt was the oldest fabric used by the ancients in Xinjiang to make hats in winter.
According to experts from the Xinjiang Museum, the early felt making is not much different from today. People first need to wash off the wool grease and sundries with water, and use the bow to buff the dried wool into a floc. Then spread the wool evenly on the curtain, start spraying the water, quickly roll the curtain, tie it with the wool rope, and finally use the foot to roll the curtain, and step on the ground to make a felt. The felt is air-dried and processed into a hat, shoes, and the like, and is warm and strong.
Xinjiang archaeologists have found felt-stitched felt hats in many cemeteries. For example, in 1979, Xinjiang archaeologists discovered the feather hats with two feathers worn by the “Loulan Beauty” in the Tieban River; in 1986, In the tombs of the five tombs of Hami, the black spires were discovered more than 3,000 years ago; in 1985, the apex dark brown felt hats were unearthed in the Tokuk tombs of about 2800 years ago; in 1984, archaeologists were in the Luopu Mountain Red and white felt-stitched felt hats were found in the tombs of the Jin Dynasty.
According to the analysis of the above-mentioned archaeological findings by relevant experts, in the pre-Qin period, the phenomenon of feathers inserted by the heads of Xinjiang residents was common. Both men and women liked to wear feathered hats. This custom of inserting feathers has certain records in Chinese ancient books. Book of Rites • King System: “The East is scorned, and the hair is tattooed; the South is savage, the title is slanted; the West is smashed, the hair is smocked; the North is Di, and the clothing is burrowing.” Experts speculate from ethnology that the custom of inserting feathers on the heads of Xinjiang ancestors may be a kind of worship of birds, which is their primitive, simple, and beautiful nature.
Xinjiang ancients wear leather boots earlier than the Central Plains
From the perspective of archaeological discoveries, the history of ancient Xinjiang residents wearing boots was significantly earlier than that of the Central Plains. About 4,000 years ago, ancient Xinjiang residents had "invented" leather boots.
The raw animal boots worn by Tielan River unearthed "Loulan Beauty" are considered by the academic circles to be the earliest pairs of boots in the domestic age. This pair of leather uniform fabric boots is from 4,000 to 3800 years ago, the tip of the leather boots is open, the boots are The boots and the soles are sewn together. In 2002, a pair of short-waisted leather boots unearthed from the Xiaohe cemetery in Lop Nur were about 3,800 years old. This pair of leather-finished leather boots is similar in appearance to today's leather shoes. The boots are sewn from the bottom of the boot, the front of the boot, and the three pieces of leather behind the boot. The mouth of the shoe is also tightly wrapped with brown wool. The center of the boot is painted with a red line and is decorated with red wool and feathers.
Archaeological objects show that the ancestors of Xinjiang have greatly improved their sewing techniques by 3,000 years ago. At this time, people began to use boots and boots, and the boots have been programmed. A pair of 3,000-year-old leather boots unearthed from the Tomb of the Five Fortress in Hami in 1986 has this feature.
The soles of the boots, the boots, the boots, and the boots are made of animal skins and ribs. The boots and boots are sewn with a piece of leather. The bottom of the boot is sewn with a piece of animal skin (possibly cowhide). The front of the leather sole is turned up to the boot surface, connected to the tip of the boot, and decorated with a small brass buckle. A horseshoe and rectangular leather are sewn to the back and front of the sole. A copper buckle is embedded on each side of the boots to provide a solid leather boot and decorative effect.
Around 2,500 years ago, there were also trousers in Xinjiang.
Archaeologists found such long boots in the Subei ancient tomb in Shanshan County. These boots were sewn with animal skins, the hairs were facing outwards, the mouth of the boots was over the knees, and the soft boots of the boots were soft. The belt is woven with wool (the trousers are similar to those worn by the ancient residents of the Central Plains), and the trousers are integrated with the boots.
According to experts from the Xinjiang Museum, the boots should be designed according to the local natural environment and climatic conditions. They should be worn by local residents in cold weather.
It is understood that the popularity of boots in the Central Plains is after the rise of the Xianbei people and the unification of northern China, that is, the second Hu Feng costume change period in the Central Plains, about 1500 years ago. It’s no longer a rare shoe to go to the Tang Dynasty boots. At this time, the boots, according to Shang Shuling Ma Zhou's suggestion, were changed to short boots, used for uniforms, and sometimes used for robes, even seeing the emperor is no exception.